The story of plundering Syrian  antiquities and the most prominent actors Euphrates Post opens the file 

by admindiaa

Since the outbreak of the Syrian revolution in March 2011, its archaeological treasures have been subject to widespread looting and destruction.

Many disagree about who is responsible for destroying the Syrian cultural and archaeological heritage during the past nine years, as some hold this responsibility

The forces of the Assad regime, whose headquarters are based, not to mention the systematic thefts of a number of them, and there are those who point the finger at the opposition factions that use tunnels and explosions in their war against the forces of the regime, and control many sites that witnessed the theft of antiquities.

In general, the regime is the only one with the largest share of targeting archaeological sites through aerial bombardment and the use of heavy artillery and tank shells, and it does not take a month until human rights organizations document dozens of violations against these sites.

Most of the armed forces in Syria are from the regime and the Iranian militias and other allies of Assad, the Syrian opposition forces and factions, and Islamic organizations, accused of the destruction, looting and trade in this civilized and human heritage, and what happened in the governorate of Deir Ezzor, an example of what other Syrian provinces witnessed, even if the places differ Names, facts and dates?

If we talk about violations against the Syrian archaeological sites, and the destruction and looting that they have been exposed to, how can they be classified according to the forces implementing these crimes?

Antiquities .. out of wealth

For decades, the Assad regime has witnessed a state of competition and competition between its senior security officers, the Al-Assad family, Makhlouf, and Shalish, the most prominent of whom was the elevation of al-Assad, to control the country’s archaeological capabilities, which made it one of the reasons for their wealth.

What after the start of the Syrian revolution, and in light of the war imposed by the regime on the Syrians, and the lack of full control over its equipment and militias? Other players on the scene emerged from his officers, such as Colonel Mohsen Saeed Hussein, nicknamed “Khaddour” or “Desert Lion”, who was killed at the end of 2014, and was head of the Badia Intelligence branch before the outbreak of the revolution, then commander of the “Desert Falcons” forces.

Colonel Khaddour is considered one of the most important officers of the Badia and one of the great players in its Antiquities.

We point out here that the most important and most expensive antiquities theft took place before the revolution and over dozens of years. Perhaps the best example is the auction of the sale of the Assyrian monument for a million dollars in the Burhans Center in London, which was stolen and smuggled in 2000, that is, the period when Bashar al-Assad took control of the government after His father died, about 11 years before the revolution.

Reality is lying to tell the Syrian regime

The regime promotes that it protects archaeological sites in Syria, but the truth is completely different, as Tawfiq Al-Ibrahim (42 years old) says, who used to work in construction pledges in the city of Deir Al-Zour before the revolution, and works in the field of searching for archaeological finds, indicating that the work was fraught with risks .

He adds: “You do not know who you are dealing with, and perhaps the people you are dealing with have fake names. The whole work was secretive and exploring, and it is characterized by risk and risk, as searches continue for a long time and the end may be annoying, and you do not find anything.” .

And Ibrahim notes, that “excavation work is often carried out in the countryside within the hills and always at night in areas far from housing, and they are in a specific location from the sites previously known to be found in archaeological sites, or they are determined after searching and exploring the area.”

Al-Ibrahim also indicated in his private interview with “Euphrates Post” that “reliance on information is very little, and in the past the search was painstaking because of reliance on transferred and inaccurate information, but the emergence of the Internet and means of communication eased these burdens, especially as there are sites that are interested in excavations. The search for treasures, as well as the availability of new metal detectors and other equipment. “

On how to sell what they find, he mentioned that “there are merchants who come to the region and communicate with them, they are those who buy these finds at low prices, compared to their global prices because of the fear of competition from the security authorities, which he emphasized that they have a major role in these operations through client

He continued: “There are mediators working to transfer these finds, and there are those who bring them out of the country, and the most prominent buyers coming are from Lebanon or Syrian or Iraqi merchants, and the majority of them work for the security authorities, and one of the most prominent buyers in the city of Deir Al-Zour was a person from the Kidro family, and a dealer To sell antique holdings and buy for the benefit of the brigade in the Military Security Jama Jama.

He is considered an archaeologist, and he has strong relations in Lebanon and he was the director of the Security and Reconnaissance Branch in Beirut, and he was transferred to Deir Al-Zor after the regime’s army was expelled from Lebanon in 2005, to serve as the head of the Military Security Branch in the governorate.

When asked about those personalities, he answered that he did not know the exact mechanism of work, because “it was more like a chain, you know who deals with you directly, and you do not know who is running it, and so on, but they must be highly influential figures because of the difficulty and severity of the process, Where it is marketed, and its images appear later on the Internet, and it appears that they are sold at precious prices. “

Missing link ..

The information obtained by the “Euphrates Post” in this field indicates that the acts of looting of antiquities during the past years were also through traders, who are often present with the research and excavation groups, and they determine the places, and if the merchants are not present, the finds are hidden pending the completion of Communication with brokers, who in turn communicate with dealers.

It is clear that the people who carry out drilling work, cannot work alone, nor benefit from what they find without brokers and traders, but if there were bodies that protected and managed these operations, were these bodies protecting workers in this field if they fell into the hands of the authorities of the regime?

 According to the information, workers in this field cannot work without paying large bribes to prospect in places that are classified as mission, and bribery varies depending on who is bribed, and their rank and influence, but nevertheless, there is a high risk, because they do not provide the protection they pledge each time. From all branches of the security regime.

Powerful personalities .. and mafia

The work in antiquities during the war period consisted of networks and mafias belonging to influential figures in the Assad regime, especially for intelligence officers, and among the figures that have emerged in this field, with the desire of Shalish and Rami Makhlouf, working indirectly, through local merchants working for them, Among the most famous of them is a woman in the town of Al-Dameer in Damascus countryside called “Umm Firas”, and she has a strong personal relationship with Dhul-Himma Shalish.

Among the figures that have emerged in the countryside of Damascus are those who carried the nickname “Bou Nizar,” and there are also those who worked for officers from the Republican Palace, and were linked by a person from the Abu Al-Khair family, one of the major gold merchants in the city of Damascus, who was buying looted artifacts, and was taken from Bab Touma is based in the capital.

Beirut is the main destination for artifacts smuggled by the regime, through border points controlled by the Hezbollah militia, such as Tal Kalakh and Qusayr.

How is drilling?

The agents of the regime worked in broad daylight, and an archaeological excavator confirms that he was witnessing in Tal Al-Banat in the countryside of Aleppo, that there was a procession belonging to the Republican Palace, and they are carrying out excavations, and the path of the roads leading to the place was closed by force, before it reopened a few weeks later. Then, extensive and accurate excavations within the hill are observed.

He also witnessed the change of one of the roads that are being paved, as the distance of the road was changed 3 km with the aim of passing from several ancient hills, the most famous of which is Tabus Hill towards the Al-Maraiya area in the western countryside of Deir Ezzor, in addition to establishing military projects over archaeological sites for the purpose of excavation.

In Deir Ezzor, after the regime was expelled from most of its parts, violations of the province’s antiquities and heritage have not stopped,

Among the crimes that have been documented are the bombing of several archaeological sites by the regime forces, the emptying of the regime of the main museum, the destruction of several Islamic churches and religious centers (such as Alrawi hospice), and the destruction of the historic domed market and suspended bridge.

On the other hand, there were violations by fighters affiliated with the opposition, including storming the Church (the martyrs of the Armenians), stealing a golden crown, a golden mace, and bells of gold, in addition to the random excavation carried out by several factions,

 The most prominent was the Abbas Brigade, which includes nearly 1,800 fighters and was best known by the nickname: “Antiquities Brigade”. He had suspicious relations with the Assad regime, and was among the first to support the “Islamic State” when he took control of the city of Deir Ezzor.

It is mentioned in this field that the “Abbas Brigade” surrounded the historic closed market in the public square in the center of Deir Ezzor city, where excavation and excavation of antiquities began in this area for a long time,

 And the theft of what could be stolen from the region, and its leader Kasir Jemyan, who stole the Church of Unity accompanied by behind the dispute, and the stolen goods, golden crosses and the last dinner plate, and the Gospel of Barnabas, and all were sold in Turkey.

“Al-Nusra”, in turn, entered into this field, and appointed a local expert as the head of the excavation workshop and the purchase of artifacts, with a salary of 100,000 Syrians, and there is documented information confirming that the front provided the workshop with an exploration device valued at 8 thousand dollars, in addition to heavy mechanisms that worked in areas Several of the province.

The first focus in the work of the specialized workshop formed by the “Jabhat al-Nusra” is the authority of the Albukamal (Dora Europe), where I worked for more than two months, and was the most prominent excavation outside the fence, and found many pieces of pottery, glass ankles and stone statues, not to mention about 20 Romanian and silver gold coins.

According to the available information, Turkey was the main place for smuggling and selling artifacts, through traders of different nationalities, and there was strong competition between local merchants and merchants from outside the border to buy the artifacts, as the Salihiya area turned into a huge commercial market for the sale of archaeological finds of all kinds,

It is not without fakes, sometimes, as there was no control over them and they became permissible for everyone.

The search later became an archaeological site in the Deir Ezzor countryside, a natural scene that includes women and children workshops, and a sale.

By tracing the path of its sale and smuggling outside the country, it was a golden piece of King Partnex, which is very rare to a local merchant from the village of Khasham, and it was sold to a person from Raqqa called Adel, a former expedition worker and employee of the museum, who bought it for $ 15,000 and sold it for $ 25 thousand dollars for a person from the Qetaz family, for the latter to sell them for 50 thousand dollars.

The smuggling of the piece from the Syrian Idlib to the Turkish city of Mersin by a yacht engineer in the city of Mersin, believed to be of Iraqi nationality, The piece travels in the Louvre Museum in France, and this trip to the Partnex is similar to the journey of many Syrian pieces and artifacts to European markets and international auctions.

ISIS  stage:

Upon the rise of the “Islamic State” in Syria and Iraq, and its control of large areas of both countries, he launched a campaign to erase all forms of human heritage in them.

The organization pursued a policy of erasure and nihilism, and committed crimes against the memory of this historic human achievement, and claimed that the destruction of antiquities is a religious obligation because it is idols, and this appeared after the publication of a video showing members of theirs, who are destroying rifles and hammers antiquities on the site of the Iraqi urban archaeological site, which has been included since 1985 On the World Heritage List. 

These allegations were only a cover up of what the organization would do later, which was unable to smuggle traces weighing more than 4 tons, such as the Assyrian statues that were destroyed in its place.

It is not possible to move or smuggle an entire city like Palmyra, which has turned into an arena to show the organization’s crimes, including killing people and destroying stone and what was more hidden, such as the destruction of the mosaic in the Jadida area near the Karama area in the southeastern countryside of Raqqa governorate.

Abu Ayoub al-Ansari, 34, from the western countryside of Deir al-Zour, who has worked with the organization for nearly a year and a half in several different areas, including “Al-Rakka” as an operator of excavation equipment, says: “A mosaic of 6 meters high and 12 meters long was destroyed and exploded. And its detonation, due to a dispute between two civilians on who was first found. “

When asked by one of the princes after carrying out this operation, when the organization does not benefit from this, and when it destroyed it in this way, he replied: “We do not benefit them with it, and its size is very large and is not suitable for sale, so what they needed with it, and therefore it was destroyed.”

Abu Ayoub Al-Ansari, in his interview with Euphrates Post, added that after his transfer from Maadan to Wilayat al-Khair (Deir Al-Zor), the organization included the archaeological sites, monuments and riches buried in the properties of the “Islamic State”, and created a bureau that regulates the mechanisms of extracting, marketing, and benefiting from them. , And called it “Diwan of RIKAZ”.

 Al-Rakaz is divided into several sections: the Oil Section, the Archeology Department, and the Hardware Department. He is primarily responsible for “Rikaz” in general in Deir Ezzor Abu Suleiman Al-Maghribi, and the headquarters was the Koniko gas field, while the Department of Antiquities is divided into several departments: the official of the Department of Antiquities, the Sales Department.

The drilling official is held by princes, including a prince for sale and an office for receiving and delivery, and a prince specializing in hardware and equipment workshop that includes heavy equipment.

As for the official of the Department of Antiquities, he is Abu Abdul Rahman Al-Tunisi, the official of the Sales Department Abu Al-Wafa Al-Ansari is from the city of Deir Al-Zour from the Al-Hadawi family, and the direct deputy is Abu Abdul Rahman Al-Tunisi.

The excavation official, Abu al-Laith al-Dairi, Muhammad Hassan al-Tabn from Deir al-Zour, who was killed with Abu Sayyaf in landing international coalition forces on the al-Omar field, and he is from the Bakara clan, who lives in the city of Deir al-Zour,

 He is from a wealthy family who used to work in goldsmithing before the war, and they have several shops in the Al-Sayagh market and the government compound, he lived in the city of Raqqa in 2013, and he did not belong to any militant faction in the early years of the revolution, but with the control of “the Islamic State” over the city of Raqqa, His uncle was a loyal first, and persuaded him to join him.

After controlling all the lands in Syria and Iraq, Al-Dairi was appointed as an exploration prince and a sale official, and he carries a budget of one million dollars to buy the pieces.

Al-Dairi obtained a stamp on which the name of the organization was written, and he obtained wide powers that included assigning people to excavate in the different areas of the province, including giving him a paper to one of his close relatives to excavate within the city of Deir Al-Zour in the Al-Hamam neighborhood of Al-Huwaiqa neighborhood. Observers by organization and how long it needs.

Business monopoly ..

In order to monopolize the work, the “State Organization” sought to prevent excavation without its control, and he did not stop at granting permission to excavate to people only, but rather formed workshops composed of employees who belong to him who have little experience in the field of exploration with some of its elements,

Where these workshops work daily for specific hours and in the form of shifts, and they have no controls in exploration, as they are used in some exploration heavy machinery (large excavators, ..) to dig sites.

One example is what happened in the archaeological castle of Al-Rahba in Al-Mayadeen, where a large excavator was used, ignoring any historical value of the site, and did not care about the damage it would cause.

In the town of boqrous, 10 km from the city of Al-Mayadeen, excavators were also used to excavate the Davidic Cemetery in the archaeological site of the town, after some people found pottery jars filled with gold, and used them in Salhia (Dora Orbos), Mary and in various places.

As for the conditions of Rkaz from what they find, prospectors were in a private house or private land, where they take zakat “ore” 20 percent.

 As exploration was within communal land, and they were given Zakat “ore” 5 percent, and sometimes within private exploration workshops, the prospector takes 20 percent, and for the organization 80 percent, according to the provision of equipment, as it was by the organization, and the organization provided modern devices for research and exploration .

I also found a mechanism for buying and selling from anyone who finds a piece through prospecting or owns pieces in advance. This person must deliver the pieces to the organization through the receiving and delivery office in Al-Mayadeen City. The person is delivered with these purposes and describes them, and he must review the office after a week , To be sent to and inspected by the organization’s laboratories.

The two most prominent laboratories of the “Islamic State” are the first of which was in the city of Raqqa, and the second, which is considered the most important in the Iraqi city of Mosul, and the latter contains a carbon analysis device, and it contains experts raised from European nationalities loyal to the organization.

 The main headquarters of this laboratory was in the Mosul International Hotel. As for the most prominent warehouses for artifacts and antiques, it is the Koniko field (room No. 106), then the oil age field. After the landings, these warehouses were moved to Al-Mayadeen City, near the receiving and delivery office.

The new warehouses were apartments for civilians confiscated by the organization, and upon the return of the artifacts from the examination process, it is agreed to pay for them, and if the price is not agreed upon, the pieces will be confiscated in favor of the organization.

How to work and make money:

Abu Ayoub al-Ansari says: “The organization had several bodies for the disposal of these goods, depending on their type, and they have traders with European nationalities in Erbil and in Turkey, who come from Australia, Switzerland and Britain, and all these pieces are offered at international auctions, and among the most prominent buyers is an official at the Israeli embassy in Erbil ,

I sent him many Hebrew artifacts, including a 93-centimeter Hebrew sword, and was written on it in gold in the Hebrew language, in addition to several books, manuscripts, Assyrian and destructive paintings. “

He continues: “The transportation method to Kurdistan takes place in several forms, and it was clearer to him through the oil tanks that go towards the city of Zakho, where some of the tanks are led by two associate persons of the organization, one of whom is security, so that the tanks are delivered at a point,

 The return will be by a second car, loaded with money to the city of Mosul, and then transported and distributed by a double ambush car, and the operation will be conducted in a very secret manner, under the special supervision of Abu Muhammad al-Mughrabi, Abu Suleiman al-Mughrabi, and other princes of al-Rikaz in Syria and Iraq.

No confidence ..

There are many princes of Al-Rikaz in the Department of Antiquities, including Abu Khattab Al-Iraqi, Abu Naim Al-Maghrabi and Abu Al-Wafa Al-Tunisi.

Most of the princes and officials of “Al-Rakaz” and excavations were from the Tunisian citizenship, and after many thefts by the “Rakaz” princes, and their flight with money, the organization pursued a policy of changing them and handing them to “Rakaz” positions for brief periods not exceeding 3 months, and the organization does not trust any of the Its members and princes, to send anything to sell with them, for the operations to take place via its own networks.

Al-Ansari asserts that there are other smuggling lines towards Turkey, when he controlled the border city of Tal Abyad, which is considered one of the most important smuggling lines, and is often carried out by a person called Abu Othman Al-Turki.

Who carried many artifacts, and he was one of the officials responsible for smuggling artifacts to Turkey, Abu Abdullah Al-Rafdan, the official of “Rikaz” in the Al-Shaddadi region, and he is a Syrian from the countryside of Deir Ezzor Al-Sharqi (the village of Jdeid Akidat), and a relative of Amer Al-Rafdan, who is one of the most prominent Leading the organization.

In a meeting with “Euphrates Post” with a teacher of Deir Al-Zour who is interested in archeology “Abu Alaa Al-Shami, he affirmed that the General Prince of Antiquities is called Abu al-Muhajir al-Libi, 35,

He entered Syria in 2013 with his family, accompanied by Abu Al-Wafa Al-Tunisi, and was killed in a raid by the International Alliance in the city of Al-Bab in 2016, to be succeeded by “Abu Al-Shahid Al-Tunisi”.

Important details ..

The main office of the antiquities organization in the city center of Raqqa was opened on Tal Abyad Street, opposite Al-Kawthar Mosque, and its director, Abu Hamza Al-Raqawi, was Syrian (from the Al-Bureij tribe from Al-Karamah countryside in Raqqa countryside),

 As he was invited to the office, and he was offered a monthly salary of 200,000 Syrians, a house and a car, and every place determined is taking 50 percent, so he refused this offer and then moved to the city of Deir Al-Zour and was invited again by Abu Al-Wafa Al-Tunisi and his deputy Ibrahim Mohamed Al-Futouri, nicknamed Abu Trapp Al-Tunisi (a Tunisian with Libyan nationality),

 They were supervising the drilling operations in the Syrian section, and their task was to search for experts to assist them in the excavations, and a contract is signed between the two parties, the first party responsible Tunisian, and the expert second party.

Abu Alaa was imprisoned by the organization, because he refused to work, and says: “They visited me on a daily basis, and they asked me about some artifacts, are they fake or real? And the width of 55 cm, called the plate of wisdom, which is a Assyrian man with a left hand holding a basket, and picking grapes with his right hand.

Abu Alaa confirms that the organization sold this plate to a local merchant with a value of 60 million Syrian pounds with a set of Roman gold coins. Among the most prominent buyers of the organization and brokers are:

Adnan Al-Basha Abu Sondos, a former arms dealer, and currently he is a member of a local council affiliated with the Kurdish forces, and he worked with the organization before the Kurdish forces took control of the area, and his mission is to bring in merchants from the Syrian city of Suwayda, and send pictures of artifacts abroad, which come through the Badia The Syrian delegation to Deir al-Zour, and deals and sales and purchases in a house in the Al-Hraiji area.

There is also another person called “George”, who is a Christian who comes from the city of Hasaka, who is responsible for negotiations between the regime and the opposition factions in all its forms, and deals with the organization to buy artifacts, in addition to a member of the People’s Assembly of the regime, Hossam Al-Qatirji, who signed a contract between him And he explained the organization to buy artifacts through his agent Adnan Al-Sukhni.

Among the most expensive deals, Abu Alaa talks about selling a rare golden group owned by the organization to a Kuwaiti merchant who entered the areas of “ISIS” control from Iraq under the protection of the elements of the organization, and his Iraqi agent. And this deal was done with a purchase of $ 6 million, and the money was delivered through bank accounts in five countries, in the names of different companies and people in each country, and among these countries Saudi Arabia, Britain and France and accounts in the city of Damascus.

What after the decline of the organization?

After the decline of the control of the “Islamic State” in Syria and Iraq, resorted to organizing local auctions to sell artifacts, and the auction center was in Al-Mayadeen City, and most Iraqi and Syrian merchants bought these pieces, and they were smuggled in their own way.

During the meeting, Abu Alaa showed some pictures, including a Palmyra plaque, which he said was one of the 8 funerary paintings smuggled from the city of Palmyra in 2013 by thieves raised to the village of Al-Siyal in the Albukamal countryside, on the basis of selling it to a merchant in the village of Siyal, and there was a dispute between Thieves and the merchant because he has paid them part of the amount, and he wants to cancel the deal, and the thieves could not return the amount.

 He added: “Upon the arrival of the organization and control of Albukamal, this piece was confiscated in his favor, and by tracing its fate, it was found that it was among the pieces confiscated by the Swiss authorities.”

 He continued: “What draws attention in this piece, is the professionalism in cutting it in a longitudinal and transverse manner, as the clip is part of a larger scene, and it is likely that the original piece was fragmented into smaller pieces, which facilitates the transfer process, and may be collected later, and then sold “. He says.

The records of the piece are mentioned, that it was deposited in the free market in the port of Geneva, and that the source of the shipment is the State of Qatar, while the Swiss authorities confirm that the piece is authentic, and that the piece is on the date 2013 in Syria in the city of Albukamal.

The stage of “SDF”

With “SDF” controlling Deir Ezzor, the focus was on the archaeological areas, preventing civilians from approaching them, and monopolizing this with people who obtained a license in exchange for paying large sums of money.

“SDF” issued penalties for those who trade in antiquities, and the prison and fine for those who work in antiquities trade at first, as it prevented excavation and trade in antiquities, or any person digging or tampering with archaeological areas.

Despite this, the famous archaeological sites and hills in eastern Syria, today witnessing active trade in its holdings, chaos and many excavations by civilians, including those working by the agency for a number of Kurdish leaders to find rare artifacts.

“SDF” has established an antiquities authority under its supervision, and a number of people work in them, each of them is responsible for a specific area, as they photograph and register the site with the authority.

 It is worth noting that “SDF” also used the same person who was managing the antiquities trade and excavation during the era of “ISIS”, which is “Abu Atheer al-Baghawi”. “.

And the most prominent of these areas that are excavated:

HILL Ajajah archeological south of the city of Hasaka

Sheikh Hamad Hill, south of the town of Mercada

Hill Al-Shadadi in the city of Al-Shaddadi

Hill Al-Fadghami Village and Al-Shamsani Village

Hwizia hill east of the city of Shaddadi

Wadi Abu Fashqa, east of the city of Shaddadi

Red Hill near Al-Khabour Dam

Most of these hills are fortresses or castles belonging to the civilizations of the Amorites, Assyrians, and Hatra, and to a lesser extent the and Roman civilizations, with a random presence of some Ottoman sites.

Of course, “SDF” has no museums, and this trade is often used to finance “SDF”, or for the benefit of influential people in it.

Parallel to the activities of the “Syrian Democratic Forces” in the field of antiquities, many civilians interested in searching for antiquities continue to carry out their activities through excavation, trade and rare sale of rare pieces.

This is often done by intermediate merchants from the eastern countryside of Deir Ezzor. On the other hand, “intent” arrests anyone who works in this field individually and imposes fines on him.

Archaeological holdings are smuggled from the areas controlled by the “Syrian Democratic Forces” to Idlib and Turkey in the first place, or to the areas controlled by the regime, especially in the countryside of Deir Ezzor, in coordination with the mediators.

Referred to here is the great activity of the regime’s militias, such as “Al-Baqir” and “National Defense”, and they are the ones that deal most with the antiquities.

The most important factors that destroyed Syria’s ruins:

1- The Syrian archaeological sites are turned into military sites, gathering places for military forces, barricades, or ammunition depots, making them battle arenas, and subject to direct targeting by bombing or bombing by the conflicting parties.

2- Illegal exploration of antiquities thieves, individuals or organized groups.

3- Theft and smuggling operations, which were previously in place and consulted, due to the prevailing chaos that formed a fertile environment in which the “mafias” of international antiquities and their networks operate alongside local thieves.

4- Increasing counterfeiting and forgery operations, especially for statues, mosaics, and books.

5 – The sabotage and systematic destruction of antiquities on the basis of ideological background, which was clearly visible in the hard-line Islamic currents, especially with the “Islamic State”.

6- Using archaeological sites as housing for refugees fleeing from the bombing areas, as happened in Idlib, which took many fleeing from the bombing of the Syrian and Russian regime, archeological sites for housing

The damage to the Syrian antiquities varies, with partial or complete destruction, from the presence of gunshot wounds, to fires, vandalism, and direct destruction.

What we see today is the isolation of the human heritage and the Syrian civilization and the desolate and impoverished and transformed into a lost entity, without life and history, so that future generations will find nothing based on it only desert barren and deadly,.


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